IELTS CAMBRIDGE – bộ luyện đề được xuất bản hàng năm bởi Cambridge – tổ chức sáng lập IELTS. Tài liệu có độ khó xát nhất với độ khó của đề thi thật. Đây có thể được coi là tài liệu luyện đề buộc phải có của mỗi người học IELTS.
Hiểu được tầm quan trọng của cuốn tài liệu, đội ngũ chuyên môn của ZIM đã biên soạn tỉ mỉ Tài liệu giải thích chi tiết đáp án IELTS CAMBRIDGE 6-13. Hy vọng rằng cuốn tài liệu này sẽ giúp ích được cho các bạn trong quá trình luyện thi IELTS.
Tài liệu này gồm những gì?
- IELTS CAMBRIDGE READING TEST 6 – 13 ( 2011-2019)
- Đáp án chi tiết + lời giải thích rõ ràng tương ứng với câu hỏi
- Tổng hợp những từ vựng ghi điểm theo chủ đề dưới mỗi phần giải thích
Hướng dẫn cách học hiệu quả
- Chỉ làm một passage tối đa là 20p
- Làm lại các bài đọc ít nhất 2 lần trở lên
- Takenote những keyword, collocations có trong bài và lời giải thích
Ví dụ: Trích trong IELTS CAMBRIDGE 13 – Test 2- Passage 3
Most managers can identify the major trends of the day. But in the course of conducting research in a number of industries and working directly with companies, we have discovered that managers often fail to recognize the less obvious but profound ways these trends are influencing consumers’ aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors. This is especially true of trends that
managers view as peripheral to their core markets.
Many ignore trends in their innovation strategies or adopt a wait-and-see approach and let competitors take the lead. At a minimum, such responses mean missed profit opportunities. At the extreme, they can jeopardize acompany by ceding to rivals the opportunity to transform the industry. The purpose of this article is twofold: to spur managers to think more expansively about how trends could engender new value propositions in their core markets, and to provide some high-level advice on how’ to make market research and product development personnel more adept at analyzing and exploiting trends.
One strategy, known as ‘infuse and augment’, is to design a product or service that retains most of the attributes and functions of existing products in the category but adds others that address the needs and desires unleashed by a major trend. A case in point is the Poppy range of handbags, which the firm Coach created in response to the economic downturn of 2008. The Coach brand had been a symbol of opulence and luxury for nearly 70 years, and the most obvious reaction to the downturn would have been to lower prices. However, that would have risked cheapening the brand’s image. Instead, they initiated a consumer-research project which revealed that customers were eager to lift themselves and the country out of tough times. Using these insights, Coach launched the lower-priced Poppy handbags, which were in vibrant colors, and looked more youthful and playful than conventional Coach products. Creating the sub-brand allowed Coach to avert an across the board price cut. In contrast to the many companies that responded to the recession by cutting prices, Coach saw the new consumer mindset as an opportunity for innovation and renewal.
A further example of this strategy was supermarket Tesco’s response to consumers’ growing concerns about the environment. With that in mind, Tesco, one of the world’s top five retailers, introduced its Greener Living program, which demonstrates the company’s commitment to protecting the environment by involving consumers in ways that produce tangible results. For example, Tesco customers can accumulate points for such activities as reusing bags, recycling cans and printer cartridges, and buying home-insulation materials. Like points earned on regular purchases, these green points can be redeemed for cash. Tesco has not abandoned its traditional retail offerings but augmented its business with these innovations, thereby infusing its value proposition with a green streak.
A more radical strategy is ‘combine and transcend’. This entails combining aspects of the product’s existing value proposition with attributes addressing changes arising from a trend, to create a novel experience – one that may land the company in an entirely new market space.
At first glance, spending resources to incorporate elements of a seemingly irrelevant trend into one’s core offerings sounds like it’s hardly worthwhile. But consider Nike’s move to integrate the digital revolution into its reputation for high-performance athletic footwear. In 2006, they teamed up with technology company Apple to launch Nike+, a digital sports kit comprising a sensor that attaches to the running shoe and a wireless receiver that connects to the user’s iPod. By combining Nike’s original value proposition for amateur athletes with one for digital consumers, the Nike sports kit and web interface moved the company from a focus on athletic apparel to a new plane of engagement with its customers.
A third approach, known as ‘counteract and reaffirm’, involves developing products or services that stress the values traditionally associated with the category in ways that allow consumers to oppose or at least temporarily escape from the aspects of trends they view as undesirable.
A product that accomplished this is the ME2, a video game created by Canada’s iToys. By reaffirming the toy category’s association with physical play, the ME2 counteracted some of the widely perceived negative impacts of digital gaming devices. Like other handheld games, the device featured a host of exciting interactive games, a lull-color LCD screen, and advanced 3D
graphics. What set it apart was that it incorporated the traditional physical component of children’s play: it contained a pedometer, which tracked and awarded points for physical activity (walking, running, biking, skateboarding, climbing stairs). The child could use the points to enhance various virtual skills needed for the video game. The ME2, introduced in mid-2008, catered to kids’ huge desire to play video games while countering the negatives, such as associations with lack of exercise and obesity.
Once you have gained perspective on how trend-related changes in consumer opinions and behaviors impact on your category, you can determine which of our three innovation strategies to pursue. When your category’s basic value proposition continues to the meaningful for consumers influenced by the trend, the infuse-and-augment strategy will allow you to reinvigorate the category.
If analysis reveals an increasing disparity between your category and consumers’ new focus, your innovations need to transcend the category to integrate the two worlds. Finally, if aspects of the category clash with undesired outcomes of a trend, such as associations with unhealthy lifestyles, there is an opportunity to counteract those changes by reaffirming the core alues of your category.
Trends – technological, economic, environmental, social, or political – that affect how people perceive the world around them and shape what they expect from products and services present firms with unique opportunities for growth.
27. D (Most managers are unaware of the significant impact that trends have on consumers’ lives – Hầu hết các nhà quản lý không nhận thức được những tác động đáng kể của các xu hướng lên cuộc sống của người tiêu dùng)
Giải thích: Đoạn 1: manager often fail to recognize the less obvious but profound ways these trends are influencing consumers’ aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors.
Fail to recognize = are unaware of
Significant impact that trends have on = profound ways these trends are influencing
Consumers’ lives = consumers’ aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors
28. C (Coach was anxious to safeguard its reputation as a manufacturer of luxury goods – Coach lo lắng về việc bảo vệ danh tiếng là một nhà sản xuất các mặt hàng xa xỉ)
Giải thích: Đoạn 3: The Coach brand had been a symbol of opulence and luxury for nearly 70
years, and the most obvious reaction to the downturn would have been to lower price. However, that would have risked cheapening the brand’s image.
Reputation = brand’s image
Risked cheapening the brand’s image: Nguy cơ làm giảm giá trị hình ảnh thương hiệu
29. A (It did not require Tesco to modify its core business activities – Nó không yêu cầu Tesco phải sửa đổi hoạt động kinh doanh cốt lõi của mình)
Giải thích: Đoạn 4, câu cuối cùng: Tesco has not abandoned its traditional retail offerings butaugmented its business with these innovations…
Abandoned its traditional retail offerings = modify its core business activities
30. D (It was the kind of strategy which might appear to have few obvious benefits – Nó là một dạng chiến lược mà dường như có ít ích lợi rõ ràng)
Giải thích: Đoạn 5: “At first glance, spending…..sounds like it’s hardly worthwhile”
Few obvious benefits = hardly worthwhile
31. D (It was a handheld game that addressed peoples’ concerns about unhealthy lifestyles – nó là một trò chơi cầm tay giải quyết những lo ngại của mọi người về lối sống có hại cho sức khoẻ)
Giải thích: Đoạn 6: like other handheld games, …. The ME2, introduced in mid-2008, catered to kids’ huge desire to play video games while countering the negatives, such as associations with
lack of exercise and obesity.
– Unhealthy lifestyles: lack of exercise and obesity
– Countering: Chống lại
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